Volume 24, Number 1

Contents - Volume 24, Number 1

Published June 2020
Volume 24, Number 1 (complete issue)

Contents page - Volume 24, Number 1


Research Papers

Volunteered Geographic Information for people-centred severe weather early warning: A literature review

Sara Harrison, Sally Potter, Raj Prasanna, Emma E. H. Doyle & David Johnston

Keywords: early warning system, people-centred early warning system, volunteered geographic information, disaster risk reduction, severe weather

Early warning systems (EWSs) can prevent loss of life and reduce the impacts of hazards. Yet, recent severe weather events indicate that many EWSs continue to fail at adequately communicating the risk of the hazard, resulting in significant life and property loss. Given these shortcomings, there has been a shift towards people-centred EWSs to engage with audiences of warnings to understand their needs and capabilities. One example of engaging with warning audiences is through the collection and co-creation of volunteered geographic information (VGI). Much of the research in the past has primarily focused on using VGI in disaster response, with less exploration of the role of VGI for EWSs.
This review uses a scoping methodology to identify and analyse 29 research papers on EWSs for severe weather hazards. Results show that VGI is useful in all components of an EWS, but some platforms are more useful for specific components than are others. Furthermore, the different types of VGI have implications for supporting people-centred EWSs. Future research should explore the characteristics of the VGI produced for these EWS components, and determine how VGI can support a new EWS model for which the World Meteorological Organization is advocating: that of impact-based forecasting and warning systems.

Citizen science as a catalyst for community resilience building: a two-phase tsunami case study

Emma E. H. Doyle, Emily Lambie, Caroline Orchiston, Julia S. Becker, Lisa McLaren, David Johnston & Graham Leonard

Keywords: tsunami, citizen science, community resilience, disasters, evacuation, warnings

The role of citizen science in natural hazard risk awareness, assessment, mitigation, and preparedness is being recognised as an important element of disaster risk reduction. Citizen science has potential as a collaborative resilience building activity that can help build the capacity of, and relationships between, individuals, communities, and institutions to prepare and respond to disaster. Specifically, citizen science can increase resilience by building the collective- and self-efficacy of individuals, organisations, and communities as well as other factors such as enhancing planning, coping mechanisms, social capital, community participation, leadership, empowerment, trust, and a sense of community. We present a case study of a two-phased citizen science initiative related to tsunami preparedness and response, undertaken between 2015 and 2016 in Orewa, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. The activities of the first phase acted as a catalyst for the second phase and thus contributed directly to resilience building. Phase One was a citizen-initiated, co-developed survey on tsunami preparedness and intended response. The results from the survey, showing that participants had a low understanding of appropriate response to a potential tsunami threat, were used by community leaders to develop a community preparedness and awareness-building exercise: Phase Two. Phase Two was a joint citizen and agency-facilitated tsunami evacuation exercise “Ahead of the Wave”, with science-led data collection on evacuation numbers and timing. This initiative was aimed at improving the response capacity of a coastal community at risk of tsunami and was initiated by the community itself with support from other agencies. We present an overview of the methodological approaches taken to understand community resilience to tsunami risk in Orewa. Further, we highlight the importance that researchers working in the citizen science space must recognise the time required to invest in co-production and the importance of understanding the different motivations of organisations and individuals.

Post-disaster health status of train derailment victims with posttraumatic growth

Danielle Maltais, Anne-Lise Lansard, Mathieu Roy, Mélissa Généreux, Geneviève Fortin, Jacques Cherblanc, Christiane Bergeron-Leclerc & Eve Pouliot

Keywords: technological disaster, train derailment, posttraumatic growth, post-traumatic stress disorder, post-disaster psychological health, positive effects of disaster

In July 2013, a train derailment causing explosions and a fire in downtown Lac-Mégantic (Municipalité Régionale de Comté du Granit, Quebec, Canada) resulted in the death of 47 people and the destruction of many homes and other buildings. This article compares the physical and psychological health of 624 adults from the Granit area exposed to this disaster three years after the tragedy, comparing based on the presence or absence of posttraumatic growth. Women, people with high levels of social support, lower levels of education, and with lower incomes were more likely to show posttraumatic growth. For psychological health, the presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and the use of antidepressants were positively related to posttraumatic growth. Our study demonstrates that, over time, many people managed to initiate a recovery process and to see benefits from this disaster.


Research Updates

A research update on the demography and injury burden of victims of New Zealand earthquakes between 2010 and 2014

Shewa Basharati, Michael Ardagh, Joanne Deely, Nicholas Horspool David Johnston, Shirley Feldmann-Jensen, Alieke Dierckx & Martin Than

Keywords: earthquakes, sex and age, scene of injury, population exposed to shaking intensity, injury burden

This study compared the populations exposed to different shaking intensities of recent New Zealand earthquakes with injury burden, demography, and scene of injury. The population exposed to each earthquake was approximated by overlaying estimates of ground shaking with a model of population distribution for day and night populations. Injury data from all earthquakes and their aftershock periods were analysed for patient age and sex, location, scene of injury, and date of injury. An association was found between population exposed to shaking intensity and injury burden. The total injury burdens for each earthquake were: 2,815 (Darfield, 2010); 9,048 (Christchurch, February 2011); 2,057 (Christchurch, June 2011); 1,385 (Christchurch, December 2011),;106 (Cook Strait, 2013); 166 (Grassmere, 2013); and 49 (Eketahuna, 2014). All earthquakes injured approximately twice as many females as males. Most people who were injured were in the age range of 40-59 years. Two-thirds of injuries occurred at home, followed by 14% in commercial locations and 6.5% on roads and streets. This pattern was repeated within the data for each sex. The results suggest that the total injury burden was positively associated with both the intensity of shaking and size and density of the exposed population. The localities where most injuries occurred suggest that where people were at the time of shaking influenced their risk of injury. Potential explanations for the sex disparity in number of injuries are discussed.



All papers are protected under the Creative Commons attribution as per our copyright notice.

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